waveform analysis


    Waveforms  and what they mean ......  a wave is a graph of Voltage vs Time

Here are some of the very important wave forms that you will see many variations of.
Wave forms tell you about the magnitude of a value such as voltage or current over time.

see >>> Hypolyte Pixii's original DC generator

DC generator creates PDC due to commutation (reversal) of sine wave at commutator

see >>> another AV demo

AC generators produce
a sinusoidal wave form
described as
V =  sin*V

T = time of cycle (Period) (s)
F = 1/T   (frequency)  (Hz)

Nikola Tesla
- 3 phase systems are in use

- they produce 3 120 degree out of phase lines


Sine Wave
tides, planets, music, all follow sinusoidal rhythms

Vrms = V max  0.707

more about RMS>>

Vp = V max


Vpp =  2Vmax  = 2Vpp

Period is the time of a cycle
a cycle is the time between 2 similar adjacent points on wave

 half wave PDC

results from a one diode rectifier
note that half the original sine wave is missing is missing

Full wave PDC

results from a 4 diode rectifier

capacitative filtering "smooths" PDC

a larger capacitor provides greater filtering

a combination of waves results in complex analogue waves

triangle wave

analogue means the same as analogue waves always look similar to the original signal


digital waves are square waves that often use digital encoding to process information

square wave used in digital electronics
electrical state
digital state
digital number

binary states

electrical picture of the cardiac cycle

your heart is a muscular pump activated by a biological electronic oscillator

when a heart looses rhythm a medical defibrillator built around a capacitor can start normal rhythm by delivering a shocking pulse of electrical energy

electricians should avoid electrical current through the chest as this can disturb the heart's natural rhythm

keep  one hand behind your back!